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Origin of the name RAMESES.
Etymology of the name RAMESES.
Meaning of the baby name RAMESES.


RAMESES.  "Son of Ra."  Ra-meses I., the first king of the XIXth dynasty.  He was probably related by marriage to the family of his predecessor Haremhebi, but his pedigree and connection are not known.  In the second year of his reign he associated his son Seti I. with himself, and made him marry the princess Touaa, a direct descendant of Amenhotep IV.  From his features he was evidently of Semitic origin, and possibly was even descended from some of the Hykshos chiefs who still remained in Egypt after the bulk of their nation was expelled.  Warlike as were all the kings of his race he fought against the Hittites, and claimed to have been the first of the Pharaohs who had pursued that nation into the valley of the Orontes.  He concluded a treaty of peace with their king Separuru or Sap-or, and he returned to Egypt with a large number of prisoners, or rather slaves, whom he employed in the erection of temples to the deities Khem and Amen Horus.  Rameses I. died after a short reign, and was succeeded by his son, or as some texts call him his son-in-law Seti I., the Sesostris of the Greeks.  The name Rameses should be pronounced Ra-meses, not as is commonly done Ram-eses, as if it were a compound of the name of the Hindu deity Ram.
    Rameses II.  Surnamed Meri-amen, "Beloved of Amen."  The son of Seti I., with whom he was associated on the throne of Egypt when only ten years old, becoming sole king at the age of eighteen or twenty.  He was as great a warrior as his father, and even a still greater builder of temples and palaces, chiefly of the temples of Ipsambul, the Ramesseium, Memphis, Karnak, Luxor, Abydos, and Tanis.  He also constructed a great colossus representing himself at Memphis.  On these monuments his name is found written in thirty different ways.  His first wars were against the Ethiopians, whom he completely overcame; but his chief wars were against the Khitae, where by his extreme hardihood he nearly lost his life in an ambush set by his foes, from which he was only delivered by his own bravery and that of his armour-bearer Menna.  Ultimately Rameses concluded a treaty of peace with Khitasira, the king of the Hittites, and took his daughter to wife, giving her the Egyptian name of Ra-m-aa-ur-nefru.  He invaded Palestine and took the fortress of Shaluma or Shalem, the Jerusalem of Hebrew history; and besides many other fortresses he built those of Pakhalem and Raameses, supposed to have been the Pithom and Rameses of the Bible, in which case he must have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus.  Rameses II. also continued a wall which was begun by his father Seti, from Pelusium to Heliopolis, as a defence to the kingdom against the Asiatics.  He married many times, and one of his daughters named Bantanath, became a queen, but of what country it is not known.  He was generally accompanied in battle by his favourite lion and dog.  He reigned alone for sixty-seven years, and was buried, not as was usual among the kings of Egypt, but in one of the chambers of the Serapeum or burial place of the bull Apis at Memphis.  He was succeeded by Menepthah II. his thirteenth son, all his younger sons having died before him.  One of his surnames, Setesura, was the origin of the royal name Sesostris of the Greeks.  He is doubtfully said to have had 166 children, 59 of them being sons, and by one Egyptologist, to have married his own daughter, the Queen Bantanath.
    Rameses III.  Surnamed Hek-an, and Pa-aser-ma-amen-meri.  The first monarch of the XXth dynasty, and the son and successor of Prince Seti-Nekht.  He was like Rameses I. of Semitic birth, and he came to the throne at a very early age, as perhaps the richest of all the kings of Egypt.  On his accession he re-organized the kingdom, which had been disarranged by the revolution of Arsu the Syrian, who had overthrown the worship of the divinities and reduced them to the rank of men, and established the castles, officers, and chiefs anew.  He held a large army of mercenary soldiers, many of them coming from Grecian colonies.  The Mashuasha having settled in the Delta, he fought against and expelled them.  He then, accompanied by the council of thirty, crossed into Asia, and defeated the Hittites, the Syrians, and the Pelasgians, who all attacked him at one and the same time in different quarters.  He subdued them with a great slaughter, and on finding himself opposed in the forests of Ephraim by a large number of lions which the Syrians had driven there to check the advance of his army, slew the animals at a general hunt, and then extended his conquests to Lebanon.  The Philistines were in turn conquered, and he took the whole nation prisoners, deporting the people to various cities where the Egyptian garrisons could keep them in check.  He then fought against the combined European nations, the Sardinians, the Thracians, and the Etruscans, and was victorious in all his undertakings.  Returning to Egypt he built the palace temple of Medinet Habu to record his victories, and constructed a great reservoir in Eastern Egypt.  The greatest donations which were ever made to the temples of Karnak were those of Rameses II., the list of which fills one of the longest papyri (the Harris) in existence.  A fleet of ships was also kept by him for the purposes of trade, new mines were opened, and the land of Egypt systematically cultivated, and the people fed by the crown, from which it has been thought that Rameses had made himself sole proprietor of the country.  Despite his great talents he was addicted to sensual indulgencies, which exposed him to the ridicule of his subjects, and led to a conspiracy against him among the chief officers of the palace and the women of the harem.  Evil was hoped to have been wrought to the king by the use of magical charms and figures of wax.  The conspirators were twice tried, and the first time the judges having dealt leniently with them the king ordered the judges themselves to be beheaded.  The second trial was more to the sovereign's wish, most of the traitors suffering death, and the others being mutilated.  The reign of this king is the first to which a date can certainly be assigned, as from an astronomical calendar in the palace of Medinet Habu, the heliacal rising of the star Sothis, or the great Sothic cycle, is marked as an event in the twelfth year of his reign.  As this cycle is known to have occurred B.C. 1300, Rameses must have come to the throne in B.C. 1311.  He reigned thirty-one years, and was the Rhampsinitus of the Greeks.  The tomb of Rameses III. is one of the most magnificent in the valley of the tombs of the kings, and the representations are of considerable interest.  Its entrance is open to the sky, and at the end of the passage the ceiling is supported by four pillars with capitals formed by the heads of bulls, the horns curved inwards, as in the headdress of the king.  The scenes in it represent Isis and Nephthys kneeling before the god Chnoumis and the scarabeus.  On the right wall of the first corridor is Ma, the goddess of truth, winged, kneeling, on the emblem "Lord," or "Dominion," facing the entrance, repeated again on the left wall.  These goddesses, respectively the lotus and papyrus emblems, have the Upper and the Lower country.  On the right wall of the first corridor is the figure of Rameses III. adoring the solar disk and the sun disk on a hill, between a crocodile and a serpent, both referring to the sun's path.  The other scenes chiefly relate to the usual passage of the sun in the lower heaven during the night, and through the regions of the Karneter, or Hades.  The tomb is particularly distinguished by eight small halls pierced laterally in the walls of the first and second corridors.  In these are representations not of a mythical nature, but of objects of civil and political life, as the work of the kitchen, the rich and sumptuous furniture of the palace, the weapons, and military standards of the army, the war galleys and transports of the fleet, and twelve representations of the Nile, or Hapi, and Egypt.  It is the fifth tomb of the valley, and a papyrus with the plan and description is said to have been found by Champollion in the Museum of Turin.  It had clearly been accessible, and apparently rifled at an early period, for the Hieratic inscriptions on its walls record the names of different scribes who had visited it in Pharaonic times, as Greek inscriptions do the Greek and Roman travellers who penetrated during the period of the Roman empire.  The mummy of Rameses had been destroyed, and his tomb in recent times rifled of its contents; sepulchral figures of the king, there once deposited, being found in the museums of Europe.
    Rameses IV., the son of Rameses III.  He ascended the throne when quite young, and the highest date known of his reign is that of his eighteenth year.  Except that he obtained tribute from the Assyrians, Rameses IV. apparently did nothing worth recording.  He died childless.
    Rameses V., an usurper who is supposed to have succeeded to the throne by a revolution consequent on the previous monarch having left no heirs.  Except a tablet recording some local benefits bestowed by him on the town of Silsilis, no particulars are known of his reign.  The tomb of Rameses V. is remarkable for the long series of sculptures or painting adorning a succession of halls or galleries, excavated in the side of the mountain, and forming the approach of the Sarcophagus Hall.  The wells are adorned with mythological and astronomical scenes, representing the sun's course, and the rewards or punishments to be awarded to a soul in a future life.  The Sarcophagus Hall, described in great detail in the letters of Champollion, shows us the course of the sun, and the walls are covered with thousands of Hieroglyphics.  Among the sixteen tombs of the valley of Biban-el-Moluk, a part only have their decorations completed throughout their whole extent, and these belong to princes who had a long reign; for the construction of the royal sepulchre was begun at the commencement of the reign, and, more or less, was accomplished according to the length of time that the king occupied the throne.  When once the corpse was deposited in the sepulchre, the door was closed, to be re-opened no more."
    Rameses VI., the successor of Rameses V. and the son of Rameses III.  He maintained the sway of the empire over the Southern provinces, and received tribute from Punnu, prince or viceroy of Ethiopia.  Nothing else is recorded of his reign.  His tomb is remarkable for its astronomical inscriptions.
    Rameses VII., the successor of Rameses VI. and a son of Rameses III.  His name only occurs on some unimportant monuments.
    Rameses VIII., the successor and brother of Rameses VII.  Nothing of importance is known of either of these monarchs.
    Rameses IX.  Surnamed Khaem-mi-amen.  The successor, whether immediately or not is uncertain, of Rameses VIII.  During his reign the tombs of ten great kings and queens of the earlier dynasties were opened by robbers and plundered.  The accused were at first acquitted, but were afterwards retried, condemned to be bastinadoed, and put to death.  Towards the close of his reign, Rameses IX. associated his son Rameses X. with himself on the throne.
    Rameses X., the son of Rameses IX., with whom for a short time he reigned jointly.  Nothing is known of his works or reign.
    Rameses XI., the successor of Rameses X.  Nothing but his name is known.  During the reigns of all these later Ramesside kings the real power was lodged in the hands of the high-priest of Amen, who with his colleagues appears to have reduced the monarchs to little better than a nominal possession of the throne, and in the end to have usurped the government.
    Rameses XII., the successor of Rameses XI.  He still maintained the sovereignty of Egypt over Assyria, though in a merely nominal form.  He married the daughter of the prince of Bakhtan, in Mesopotamia, and changed her name into that of Raneferu, "Most Beautiful Sun."  At the request of his father-in-law he sent the sacred ark of the deity Khons, of Thebes, to Bakhtan, in order to relieve Bent-aresh, the sister of his queen, who was possessed by a demon, which Tet-em-hebi the royal secretary had been unable to subdue.  The mission of the god Khons was successful, and for a while the ark remained at Bakhtan.  After a residence there for more than three years, the priest returned with a large number of valuable offerings, in the thirty-third year of the reign of Rameses, who, it is supposed, died not long afterwards.  He was succeeded by Rameses XIII., the last of the great family of Ramesside kings.
    Rameses XIII., surnamed Khaem-mi-amen-nuter-nik-ten.  The successor of Rameses XII.  No particulars of his reign are known, and at its close the high-priest of Amon, Har-hor, whose predecessors had long commanded the troops and worn the uraeus badge of royalty, assumed the throne.  See Har-hor.
    Ra-meses, a royal scribe and chancellor, in the reign of Tirhakah.  He was the son of the lady Zesmehentperu.
    Rameses, a son of Rameses I. of the XIXth dynasty.  He probably died before his father.
    Rameses, the names of three successive sons of Rameses III. of the XXth dynasty. (An Archaic Dictionary, Cooper, 1876).


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