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Origin of the name SHALMANESER.
Etymology of the name SHALMANESER.
Meaning of the baby name SHALMANESER.


SHALMANESER.  "Shalman protects."  Shalmaneser I., an early king of Assyria.  The son of Vulnirari or Rimmon-Nirari I., whom he succeeded about B.C. 1300, and whose conquests he continued.  He defeated the Muzri or Egyptians who had settled in Asia, and settled an Assyrian colony at the head waters of the Tigris.  The fame of Shalmaneser rests now more on his buildings than his conquests.  At Assur, the old capital, he enlarged the palace, and restored the great temple called "The Mountain of the World."  He however gave a severe blow to the importance of the city by founding a palace at Nineveh, and making that city a royal residence, and further also by building a new town about eighteen miles South of Nineveh, which was called Calah.  Shalmaneser besides this restored the temple of Ishtar at Nineveh, and dedicated some votive dishes to the goddess.  He died after a reign of about thirty years, and was succeeded by his son Tugulti-Ninip.
    Shalmaneser (II.), according to Lenormant, was the successor of Belkatirassu or Belitarus, B.C. 1070, in which case he would correspond to the Samsi-Vul III. or Samas-Rimmon III. of Smith and Sayce.
    Shalmaneser II., the son of Assurnazirpal, whom he succeeded about B.C. 860.  He was a great warrior, and the first of the Assyrian kings who came into contact with the Jews.  His first care on ascending the throne was to reduce all the tributary states of Assyria to subordination, in which he was ably assisted by his Tartan Dayan-assur.  He then repeatedly crossed the Euphrates, and dispersed the great confederation of the Syrian kings, who had combined against him under Hazael of Damascus and Ahab of Israel.  These he defeated in two separate engagements, but with a severe loss to the Assyrian army.  He again passed through the North of Palestine to the Mediterranean, taking tribute of the Phoenicians and Hittites; afterwards he subdued the kings of Ararat and Hupuskia.  The latter years of his life were embittered by the attempts of his eldest son, Assurdainpal, to usurp the throne.  Shalmaneser II. was also great as a statesman, he died after a reign of thirty-one years and was succeeded by his son, Samsi-Vul IV., B.C. 825.  "Shalmaneser II. was a great builder, like several other of the Assyrian kings.  During his first twelve years he resided at the city of Nineveh, and there he made additions to the palace, which had been rebuilt by his father, and adorned the temple of Ishtar, the goddess of the city.  Somewhere about his thirteenth year he changed his capital, and went to reside at Calah, where he ruled for the rest of his life.  At this place he built a new palace South of the one raised by his father, and completed the building of the city and raising of the walls.  At the Northern corner of the palace platform at Calah, near the temples, he built an enormous tower or Ziggurat one hundred and sixty-seven feet in length and breadth, faced with stone to the height of twenty feet, and still standing one hundred and forty feet high.  At the city of Assur, the old capital of the country, the wall having become ruins, Shalmaneser restored it and greatly strengthened it, which he records on a statue of black stone, which he raised in the city." (Smith.)  The chief interest in the reign of Shalmaneser II. centres in the great black obelisk now in the British Museum, upon which he records his conquests in Syria, Damascus, the Hauran, and the land of Bashan, and describes Jehu the king of Israel, as Yehu the son of Omri, as paying him tribute of gold, silver, buckets of gold, cups and bottles of gold, lead, and rods of ornamental wood for maces and articles of furniture, some of which are represented on the monument itself.  Shalmaneser II. of Smith is the Shalmaneser IV. of Lenormant.  NOTE.—The succession of these monarchs is at present hopelessly confused, the French and English Assyriologists differing widely in their identification.  There is, therefore, no other course to be adopted than to insert the names upon the authorities of the authors cited.
    Shalmaneser (III.),  The successor of Assur-nadin-akhi, king of Assyria.  Nothing is known respecting him.  He was succeeded by Assur-edil-ilani. (Lenormant.)  This king would be therefore Assur-nirari I. of Smith and Sayce, B.C. 1500.  
    Shalmaneser III
., the son and successor of Vulnirari III. about B.C. 783.  No memorial of Shalmaneser has come down to us, and the Assyrian Canon history is at present the only source of our knowledge of his reign.  On his accession, B.C. 783, he went to Babylon, to the region of Ituah, on the Euphrates.  B.C. 782, he attacked again the same region.  B.C. 781, Shalmaneser made war with the Armenians, called the kingdom of Ararat.  Seduri, king of Ararat, during the reign of Shalmaneser II., had introduced Cuneiform writing and various arts into Armenia; and since his time the Armenian monarchy had rapidly risen under his son Ispuni, his grandson Minua, and Argisti, the son of Minua.  These monarchs had increased the extent of their dominions, making conquests in Syria, Minni, Harhar, Media, and had even made raids into the Assyrian territory, thereby calling for their effectual repression.  The war now carried on by Shalmaneser against the Armenians appears to have been an obstinate one, and lasted from B.C. 781 through B.C. 780 and 779, closing in the year B.C. 778.  Then after a short expedition against Ituha, B.C. 777, Shalmaneser again fought with the king of Armenia, B.C. 776.  An interval of a year once more followed, Shalmaneser going to Syria B.C. 775, when again war broke out with Armenia, in conjunction this time with Zimri, B.C. 774.  About this time Shalmaneser died, when he was succeeded by Assurdan III.  Six years out of his short reign of ten years had been spent in war with these growing Northern powers, and at his death the Armenians recommenced their inroads upon Assyria. (Smith.)  Few, if any, monuments have yet been found which were executed in their reign of this monarch.  
    Shalmaneser IV
., the successor of Tiglath-Pileser II., about B.C. 727.  His relationship to the previous monarch, if any, is unknown, and he probably obtained the crown by the sword.  He had scarcely ascended the throne when he was called to quell a revolt in Palestine, and quickly following the subjugation of that first war, came a second one, the insurgents being encouraged by Sibahe, king of Egypt.  He, however, with some difficulty obtained the mastery, and forced the kings of Tyre and Sidon to pay tribute.  They in their turn destroyed his navy of sixty vessels, and compelled him to prolong the siege both of Tyre and Samaria, which he carried on at the same time.  After a five years reign an insurrection took place in Assyria, headed it is probable by his chief officer Sargon, and Shalmaneser IV. was dethroned and the crown placed on the head of Sargon II., while the Syrian and Phoenician sieges were still going on, about B.C. 722.  The annals of the reign of Shalmaneser IV. have not been found, and there are but few memorials of his reign with the exception of private and especially trade documents.  Besides his Syrian wars only a single other expedition of his, viz. one against Deri, in Babylonia, is known.  He was devoted to the worship of Nerza or Nergal, the god of war, and dedicated some fine ivory furniture to the temple of that deity at Tarbizi, North of Nineveh.  That as a king of Assyria he favoured commerce is attested by the fact that most of the Assyrian standard weights in the British Museum date from his reign.  This monarch is the Shalmaneser VI. of Lenormant, and the IVth of Smith.  
    Shalmaneser (V.), according to Lenormant, was one of the successors of Binlikkish (Vulnirari) III.  He reigned from B.C. 828 to 818.  He made an expedition to Damascus, and no less than six successive campaigns into the revolted provinces of Assyria. (An Archaic Dictionary, Cooper, 1876). 


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