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Israelite Names:  Angelic.
From History of Christian Names, by Charlotte M. Yonge, 1884.

We have thrown these together, because, though our common term for those spiritual messengers is Greek, yet all the other words for them, as well as the three individual angelic designations that have come into use as baptismal names, are derived from the Hebrew.

Moreover, the first of these belonged to the last of the prophets, Malach-jah, the angel or messenger of God.  It has even been thought by some commentators that this title of the prophet was the quotation of his own words, "Behold, I send my messenger (or Malachi) before my face."

Malachi would never have been a modern name, but for the Irish fancy that made it the equivalent of Maelseachlain, the disciple of St. Sechnall, or Secundus, a companion of St. Patrick; and as the era of him who is now called King Malachi with the collar of gold, was particularly prosperous, the name has come into some amount of popularity.

The Septuagint always translated Malach by Ἄγγελος, even in that first sentence of the prophet, which in our version bears his name.  Angelos had simply meant a messenger in Greek, as it still does; but it acquired the especial signification of a heavenly messenger, both in its own tongue, and in the Latin, whither Angelus was transplanted with this and no other sense.

Angelos first became a name in the Byzantine Empire.  It probably began as an epithet, since it comes to light in the person of Konstantinos Angelos, a young man of a noble family of Philadelphia, whose personal beauty caused him, about the year 1100, to become the choice of the Princess Theodora Komnena.  It is thus highly probable that Angelos was first bestowed as a surname, on account of the beauty of the family.  They were on the throne in 1185, and Angelos continued imperial till the miserable end of the unhappy Isaac, and his son, Alexios, during the misdirected crusade of the Venetians.  Angelos thus became known among the Greeks; and somewhere about 1217, there came a monastic saint, so called, to Sicily, who preached at Palermo, and was murdered by a wicked count, whose evil doings he had rebuked.  The Carmelites claimed St. Angelo as a saint of their order, and his name, both masculine and feminine, took hold of the fancy of Italy, varied by the Neapolitan dialect into Agnolo or Aniello—e.g., the wonderful fisherman, Masaniello, was, in fact, Tomasso Angelo; by the Venetian into Anziolo, Anzioleto, Anzioleta; and by the Florentine, into Angiolo, Angioletto, and thence into the ever-renowned contraction Giotto, unless indeed this be from Gotofredo.  It passed to other nations, but was of more rare occurrence there, except in the feminine.  The fashion of complimenting women as angels, left the masculine Ange to be scantily used in France, and Angel now and then in England; but in Italy alone did Angiolo, and its derivative Angelico, thrive.  All the other countries adopted the feminine, either in the simple form or the diminutive, or most commonly, the derivative, Angelica (angelical), noted in romance as the faithless lady, for whose sake Orlando lost his heart, and his senses.  She was a gratuitous invention of Boiardo and Ariosto; whose character for surpassing beauty made her name popular, and thus Angelica and Angelique have always been favorites.

 
English.
Angela
Angelot
Angelina
Angelica
German.
Engel
Engelchen
Angelina
Angelica
French.
Angele
Angeline
Angelique
Italian.
Angiola
Angioletta
Angelica
Agnola
Anzioleta
Polish.
Ancela
Bohemian.
Anjela
Anjelina
Anjelika

Angel was most often a man's name in England.  We find it at Hadleigh, Suffolk, in 1591, and sometimes likewise in Cornwall.

Archangel has even been used as an English name.

The mysterious creatures that are first mentioned as "keeping the way of the tree of life," then were represented in the tabernacle over-shadowing the ark, and afterwards were revealed in vision to the Prophet Ezekiel and to the Apostle St. John, combined in their forms the symbols of all that was wisest, bravest, strongest, and loftiest in creation—the man, the lion, the ox, and eagle.

In the lands where Art made the Cherub a mere head with wings, Cherubino arose as a Christian name, for it is hardly ever to be met with out of Spain and Italy.

Equally misused is Seraph—now a lady's name, as Seraphine in France; Serfina, in Spain and Italy.  The word seraph, or saraph, signifies burning, or fiery, and would apply to that intensity of glory that Ezekiel struggles to express in the cherubim by comparisons to amber and to glowing embers, or to their intense fervour of love.

Three individual angels have been revealed to us by name as of the seven that stand in the presence of God, and foremost of these is Michael (who is like unto God), he who was made known to Daniel as the protector of the Jewish people; to Zechariah, as defending them from Satan; to St. Jude, as disputing with Satan for the body of Moses; and to St. John, as leading the hosts of Heaven to battle with the adversary and prevailing over him.

His name would have seemed in itself fit only for an archangel, yet before apparently he had been made known, it had been borne by the father of one of David's captains, and by a son of Jehoshaphat, and it was almost the same as Micaiah, the name of him who foretold the destruction of Ahab.

Constantine the Great dedicated a church in his new city in honour of St. Michael, the archangel, and thenceforth Mickaelion, or Mikael, have been favourites with all branches of the Eastern Church.

An appearance of the archangel in Colosse led the way to another legend of his descent upon Monte Galgano in Apulia, somewhere about 493.  Then came a more notable vision, seen by Gregory the Great himself, of the angel standing with outstretched sword on the tomb of Adrian, which has ever since been called the castle of St. Angelo.  In 706, St. Michael was again seen to take his stand upon the isolated rock on the Norman coast, so noted as the fortress and convent of Mont St. Michel.  Moreover tradition placed him upon the Cornish rock,

"When the great vision of the guarded mount
Looked towards Namancos and Bayona's hold."

He was above all others the patron of the Christian warrior; his armour-clad effigy was seen in almost every church; the young knight was dubbed in his name, as well as that of the national saint; and since the prevalence of saintly names, his name has been frequently bestowed.  It is, perhaps, most common in the Greek and Slavonic countries; but Ireland makes great use of it; and Italy has united it with the epithet angel, in the one distinguished instance of Michelangelo Buonarotti.

 
English.
Michael
Mick
Mike
French.
Michel
Michon
Michau
Spanish.
Miguel
Italian.
Michele
German.
Michael
Micha
Dutch.
Michiel
Micheltje
Swedish.
Mikael
Mikel
Mikas
Russian.
Michail
Michaila
Misha
Mischenka
Slavonic.
Miha
Mihal
Mihaljo
Servian.
Miljo
Miho
Misa
Mijailo
Lett.
Mikkelis
Hungarian.
Mihaly
Mihal
Miska

There is some confusion in the German mind between it and the old michel (mickle, large), which, as a name, it has quite absorbed.  It has the rare feminines,

 
French.
Michelle
Michée
Russian.
Micheline
Mikelina
Portuguese.
Miguella

Legend has been far less busy with Gabriel, "the hero of god;" the angel who strengthened Daniel, and who brought the promise to Zacharias and to the Blessed Virgin.  His name is chiefly used by the Slavonians; and in Hungary we find it in combination with Bethlehem, belonging to that noted chieftain, Bethlem Gabor.

It was known and used everywhere, however; and the Swedish house of Oxenstjerna considered it to have been the saving of their line from extinction, all their sons having died in the cradle, owing, it was thought, to Satan's strangling them; till at length one was named Gabriel; and having thus obtained the protection of the guardian angel, survived to be the ancestor of the minister of the great Gustavus.  The feminine, Gabrielle, has been a favourite in France ever since la belle Gabrielle gave it a reputation for beauty.

 
English.
Gabriel
Gab
German.
Gabriel
Bavarian.
Gabe
Gaberl
Swiss.
Gabëler
Italian.
Gabriello
Russian.
Gavrül
Gavrila
Polish.
Gabryel
Illyrian.
Gabriel
Gavrilo
Gavril
Gavro
Lett.
Gaberjels
Gabris
Hungarian.
Gabriel
Gabor
FEMININE.
French.
Gabrielle
German.
Gabriele
Slavonic.
Gavrila
   

Raphael (the medicine of God), is the angel who guided Tobias and healed her father.  Italy and Spain are the countries where his name is most used, and well it may, in the first named, after the fame of him who has made it the highest proverb in art.  It hardly varies, except by the double ff of Italian, and the single one of Spain, to supply its Greek φ.  I have heard of a girl at Mentone called Ravelina, probably Raffaellina.*

* Smith, Dictionary of the Bible; Proper Names of the Bible; Williams, Commentary on the Gospels; Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art; Ruskin, Modern Painters; Marryat, Sweden.

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